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Peer-reviewed article

Where Should Learners Struggle? Developing a Failure Mindset Through Maker Activities

November 22, 2019 | Public Programs, Public Programs, Public Programs

In this article we explore how activity design and learning contexts can influence youth failure mindsets through a case study of five youth who described failure as sometimes a good thing and sometimes a bad thing (a perspective we characterize as Failure as Mosaic, described in the article). These youth and their descriptions of failure-positive and failure-negative experiences offer a unique opportunity to identify how experiences can be designed to support learning and persistence. In order to understand differing views of failure among youth, we researched the following questions:

  1. In what ways do youth who have a Failure as Mosaic mindset describe a positive failure environment?
  2. What features of making activities encourage youth to view it as a positive environment for failure?


  • CochranHeadshots1 15 17 10 smaller
    Minneapolis Institute of Art
  • 2015 Fall PI Days 9081 copy 2
    Science Museum of Minnesota
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    Binghampton University
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    Indiana University
  • Citation

    ISSN : 2475-8779
    Publication Name: Connected Science Learning
    Volume: 12


    Funding Program: IUSE
    Award Number: 1623447
    Funding Program: IUSE
    Award Number: 1623452
    Resource Type: Research Products
    Discipline: Engineering | General STEM | Nature of science
    Audience: Elementary School Children (6-10) | Middle School Children (11-13) | Educators/Teachers | Museum/ISE Professionals | Evaluators | Learning Researchers
    Environment Type: Public Programs | Summer and Extended Camps | Making and Tinkering Programs | Museum and Science Center Programs | Informal/Formal Connections

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